(A) What are some of them?
- Experiential Learning: Real, first hand experience, followed by Reflection, Abstraction and Re-application
- Problem-based Learning: Real world problem to solution - Attempt the problem first
- Challenge-based Learning: Looking at global issues and from there, look at what the learner can do with the issue, to create impact on the issue. Students would have to reflect on how has his skills changed and what he/she has changed.
- WebQuest: Starts with a scenario of varying "size", and it provides students with structures (scaffolding). High for info literacy.
- Inquiry-based Learning: Construction of Concepts through Questioning
- Service Learning: Application of skills to address an issue. Difference between Challenge based learning and service learning is "Scoping", where the latter generally is more well-defined directed towards the needs of the community. In fulfilling the needs of the community, there are 2 beneficiaries - Learner and the community being served.
Question: How do these pedagogies "come" to students?
Possibly, one is the scaffold of another - "stacking"
(B) Approaches include
- Project-based Learning
- Problem-based Learning
- Case-based Learning
- Scenario thinking
- Experiential Learning
- Onsite-Learning & fieldwork
- Service Learning
- Challenge-based Learning
(C) Strategies include
- Cooperative learning
- Learning Objects
- Presentations - What does it mean? It could take different forms (e.g. Use of PowerPoint, online presentation, demonstration & explanation, Video-clip, Virtual Presentation where students present remotely)
- Investigation & research
- Role plays
- Chats, discussions & debates
- Peer teaching
(II) Applied Learning & Participant Roles
(A) Role of Students...
- Active participation
- Able to take detail notes
- Able to associate to the task (Context of task is meaningful to students
(B) Tutor Behaviour vs Learner Behavior
- To actively, consciously connect, construct, create knowledge (to make notes)
- To engage with tasks
- To observe and emulate
- To find out, search for resources
- To plan, strategise, reflect before, in and on action
(C) Learning Design
- Physcially ACTIVE vs PASSIVE strategies
- Non-Transformational vs Transformational [learner realisation of the change on his own]
Framework adapted from Reflection in Higher Education Learning (Jenny Moon, University of Exeter)
In a pyramid with Noticing as the base... moving up all the way to TL
- Transformational [I feel that I am different now to when I first started the project in that I have learnt]
- Working with Meaning [When compare our project processes wit that of Group A, the key strengths of ours are __ and the key strengths of Group A are___]
- Making Meaning [List 3 things/concepts/aspects you found most difficult and explain why you think you found them difficult]
- Making Sense - descriptive reflection - some description, some evidence of learning [of all the things you've experienced, list 3 particular aspects you found most difficult and 3 that you found particularly easy]
- Noticing - descriptive writing (no discussion) [Describe your experience]
Reflection can be
- as an individual or as a group
- on the process or on the product
(E) Applied Thinking
- Decision Making
- Problem Solving
- Futures Thinking
- Issues Resolution (Challenge based thinking)
- Useful site - http://www.appliedthinkingskills.com/popups/areas_of_focus.html
Students should be able to (starting from below)
- Does: Performance Assessment (real). Work-based assessment, practice)
- Shows how: Performance Assessment (artificial) (eg. simulations, demos)
- Knows how: Content-based test (e.g. oral)
- Know: Factual tests (e.g. MCQ, essays)
(F) Performance Tasks
Levels of Application
1. Inside a discipline focus area > (get students to) look for examples of application > assessment is on relevance of example.
Note: Implementation - students doing the task, different groups at different times of the semester.
2. Inside a discipline focus area (e.g. Maths) > Life-like application > Assessment is on conceptual understanding within discipline focus area (e.g. Rick Ross' Mathworks)
3. From authentic application (integration of several focus areas) > Concept understanding > Assessment is multi-layered:
- core content/skills assessment
- supporting content/skills assessment
- product vs process
- individual vs group (Projects and Integrated Project)
- NP's approach: This is a major one, usually only one in a semester and it involves the tutors of the various modules in the assessment.
4. From personal experience > conceptual understanding > assessment is on attributes and voice (WISP)
- kopi tiam ("singaporean" style of World Cafe), media literacies, guidelines about materials used)
(G) D 4 Cycle
Learning through Performance
There are 4 stages in a vicious cycle: Discover > Decide > Do > Debrief > (back to Discover)
follow by another stage: Self & Group Reflections